The Seagull :
Gulls are strong birds with long wings, they have a thick, hooked beaks, and fully exposed feet and are similar to duck feet, Seagulls are characterized by having wide wings and tails with sharp corners or rounded corners, and many species of gulls also show different colors due to seasonal changes or the level of maturity.
It is noteworthy that it is very difficult to determine the type of seagulls, as there are about 43 species of seagulls, and some specialists resort to distinguishing between the different types of seagulls by the color of the beak or leg, as it is one of the good ways to determine the type of seagulls.
Male Seagulls are usually slightly larger than females and have a larger beak, while the length of gulls in general ranges from 28 to 81 cm. it is worth noting that some species of Seagulls live more than 20 years.
The habitat of the seagull :
Gulls can be seen in coastal areas on cliffs, cities, and low-lying coastal areas, however, they can also be seen inside cities around landfills and parking lots, as the presence of food means that seagulls can live comfortably inside cities or along the shore.
Seagulls are considered to be perching birds, that is, they tend to have favorite sites to live and sleep in, and it is noteworthy that Seagulls live in many different regions of the world, where a type of seagull was found living in the regions between North America to South America, and the Caribbean.
Another type of gull can also be seen in Brazil, Peru, and the coasts of the United States, in addition, there is another type of gull spread around Australia, New Zealand, the Antarctic Islands, South America, and South Africa.
Seagull food :
Gulls eat almost everything, even some research has found that they eat processed and processed human food, such as french fries, bread, and others, examples of seagull food are the following:
Seagulls are carnivorous, which makes the bulk of their diet consists of Fish, and although they eat offal and the rest of the food, Seagulls are able to hunt and catch their prey, as their size and composition help them to do so.
The methods of fishing for Seagulls are different, although they often catch their prey from shallow water because Seagulls are not capable of deep diving, examples of the types of fish that seagulls eat are; sardines, salmon, and tilapia.
Oysters and plankton :
Seagulls love shellfish and plankton as much as they love to fish, using their beak they sometimes carry their prey high with their beak and then drop it on a hard surface to break the Shield of their prey, where they use gravity to their advantage instead of hitting it with their beak.
Some of the items that seagulls eat are mollusks, crayfish, and crabs.
Marine mammals :
Seagulls hunt dolphins, whales, and seals, as it is difficult to imagine that they are prey for Seagulls, as they not only feed on the corpses of whales, dolphins, and seals lying on the shore but Seagulls may also hunt them when they are alive.
Since the Seagulls do not waste any opportunity to get food, they feed on whales or marine mammals while they are alive, and this happens when the whales come to the surface to breathe, the nearby Seagulls quickly devour parts of the skin and fat from the whale’s body near the surface.
Gulls hunt young seals, as they are not able to defend themselves from the attack of seagulls, and Seagulls have learned to use this to their advantage, at first the eyes of these young seals Peck, after which the flock of gulls feeds on them.
Since Seagulls can be found all over the world and in various weather conditions, this means that they are found in areas where there are many types of fruits, where it is possible to search for them, eat them alone, or through the remnants of fruits that humans throw as waste, examples of which are apples, bananas, and grapes.
Nuts and nuts :
Nuts and legumes provide ideal fats and are rich in protein, and although this vegetable protein lacks some of the necessary amino acids that Seagulls need, it is still better than no protein at all, examples of some types of nuts that seagulls eat are cashews, American walnuts, and peanuts.
Seagull behavior :
Seagulls patrol beaches and open oceans in large-scale groups, flying like birds of prey and quickly pouncing on their prey, Seagulls also gather around fishing boats or landfills noisily and competitively, threatening and stealing other birds.
Gulls are present at Tidal sites in search of food, capture prey, and throw oysters on rocks to break them so that they can eat what’s inside, and while picking up waste or harassing other birds, they bathe for hours and clean themselves.
Male gulls reside in special areas for breeding and both spouses participate in defending them from any threat, by releasing warning sounds, and it is noteworthy that the courtship rituals include feeding the partner, and the couple share work during a month of incubation and three months of raising the young, and during the upbringing of their young, one of the spouses always stays in the nest until the young are at least a month old.
Mating of seagulls :
Most Seagulls begin the breeding process by choosing a mate at about the age of four, and during this time, male Seagulls work in many ways to attract the attention of females so that they are chosen to be breeding companions, and as soon as the Seagulls find the right partner, their behavior remains very calm, and separation between spouses may sometimes occur.
And although gulls prefer to stay in groups, each couple has its own territory, and it is noteworthy that seagulls breed once a year, lay 3 eggs, and the process of caring for eggs continues until they hatch, and during this time the couple exchanges the process of incubating eggs so that the other partner can get food.
Nesting of a seagull :
Couples choose nesting sites together, the nests are in loose soil, in the sand, or among short plants, in order to protect the nest from the wind and hide it from predators, they usually place it next to a rock, a tree trunk, a shrub, which helps to hide it from their neighbors from nearby Seagulls.
It is possible that seagulls choose rocky crevices as sites for their nests in rocky areas as well, and it is reported that several days before laying eggs, the couple digs about four holes to be possible sites for the nest, each of which is 25 – 38 cm long, 13 – 20 cm wide, and about the depth of the egg.
Then the couple begins to lay feathers, tree branches, or any other materials in them, after which the couple chooses the appropriate nest from among these four nests, and the couple continues to lay tree branches to the nest even after the female lays eggs throughout the incubation period lasting a month.