Caribou is a species of wild goat belonging to the genus (Capra) and the family of bovids, the order of Diptera, found in the mountains of Northeast Africa, Europe, and Asia.
The IBEX is characterized by many things, such as: with its long horns arched back, which forms a semicircle, a long beard, and cloven hooves, which are herbivorous animals, ranging in height from the hoof to the shoulders from (30-170) centimeters, and its weight ranges from (30-120) kilograms.
Types of stings :
There are several types of stings, including the following:
Alpine caribou :
The Alpine caribou lives at altitudes close to the permanent snow line, and in winter it descends to lower altitudes, the height of the male Alpine caribou reaches (90) centimeters, and its weight is (100) kilograms, while the height of a female reaches (90) centimeters and her weight is (50) kilograms.
The color of the fur covering the body of the Alpine ibex is grayish-brown, darker in the lower regions, it is a common animal throughout the western and Central Alps, but its numbers are sharply decreasing and it is currently locally protected in the Italian Alps.
Siberian IBEX :
Siberian IBEX is found in western and northern China, Central and northern Asia, Afghanistan, northwestern India, southeastern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, eastern Uzbekistan, Mongolia, northern Pakistan, and south-central Russia.
The hair color of the Siberian IBEX is light brown, in winter the color of mature males becomes much darker, and white spots appear on the back and neck. The horns of males are huge and arched back, wrapping around themselves more than once, but in females they are smaller in size, slightly arched towards the back.
Spanish Ibex :
The Spanish Ibex is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, lives in areas with an altitude of more than (800) meters, prefers to live in Forest forests where cones and dense shady trees abound that protect it from the sun in times of intense heat, its color is grayish-brown.
Its height ranges from the hoof to the shoulder between (65-75) centimeters, while the length of the horn in males may reach (75) centimeters or more, and it is arched back and twisted, and its weight ranges between (35-80) kilograms.
The only type of Waal that lives in hot desert environments, and is endemic to mountainous areas west of Jordan, Palestine, northeast Sudan, northern Ethiopia, Western Eritrea, and some areas of Western and central Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Oman.
The height of the Nubian ibex ranges between (61-76) centimeters, and its weight is (25-66) kilograms, the length of the horns of males reaches (122) centimeters and is arched back in a semicircle, while the horns of females do not exceed (36) centimeters in length.
And well :
One of the critically endangered species, it is endemic to the mountains of Ethiopia, and its weight ranges from (80-125) kilograms, Walia’s caribou numbers experienced a significant decline between the years (1920-1970) due to poaching for meat, skins, and horns used to make drinking utensils.
Due to the exploitation of its natural habitat in agricultural and development projects, the few remaining populations of this species are currently found in the Simien Mountains National Park.
Habitat of the weasels :
The wild ibex or goat lives in the mountainous regions of continental Europe, northern Africa, and North-Central Asia.
The Nubian ibex lives in the African and Arab mountains, as it can withstand the hot and dry climate, and it is mentioned that the Highlands are a suitable environment for IBEX in general, and it is a herbivore, that is, it eats plants such as shrubs and herbs, and therefore it needs to graze in such areas to get its food.
On the other hand, the caribou living on the slopes reduces the risk of predators reaching it, the caribou can live at altitudes ranging from 2500 to 4500 m, as on the slopes of the Ethiopian highlands, while the European caribou prefers to live at altitudes close to the snow, but in winter it changes its place to lower and warmer altitudes, and it is found throughout the western and Central Alps, and its numbers are currently reduced.
Adaptation of the vows :
The caribou’s body is adapted to living on rocky slopes in the high mountains, replacing its short summer fur with long hair, under which thick fur hides to warm its body during the harsh winter in the mountains, and its front legs are slightly shorter than its hind legs, which enables it to gracefully climb mountain slopes.
In addition to his small, hard hooves, which are rough from below and expand when walking on flat surfaces, and strong tendons of his body that enables him to easily jump between vertically rising rocks.
Keeping its balance in the narrowest and most rugged places, the Nubian Ibex has adapted to live in hot, dry areas thanks to its shiny hair, which reflects most of the sun’s Rays, protects it from rain, in addition to its agility and speed of movement, which is difficult for predators to reach it.
Behavior and reproduction of stingrays :
The males live in separate herds, so the males are in a herd separate from the herd of females and offspring, and females and males meet only in the mating season, and the numbers of the female herd range between (10-20) individuals, while some large males prefer to separate from the herd and live alone.
Male caribou secrete a special smell to attract females and desire them to mate, and the two males compete to win the female, so they begin to mate, after which the winning caribou begins to flirt with the female for a period of up to half an hour before mating.
Female weasels carry embryos from (1-3), and the gestation period lasts between (147-180) days, the young begin to move and jump immediately after birth, and the young are weaned after four to six months, but they remain with the mother for a whole year, and the females reach the maturity that qualifies them for pregnancy when they reach (2-6) years of age, and the weasels can live in the wild for up to (17) years.
The migration of weasels :
In spring, the IBEX migrates to the mountains in search of growing herbs, and also migrates in the winter season when snow accumulates on the highlands; it moves to the slopes facing the southern region, which is characterized by a lower rate of snow and higher food, and when summer approaches, the IBEX migrates to the north, where some of them may travel 966 km to reach suitable grazing areas.
When temperatures rise in some areas where the caribou animal is present, such as the Alps and the Arctic, this animal moves to higher areas and slopes, as the caribou do not tolerate high heat very much, and it is believed that temperatures above 15-20 degrees Celsius may lead to male and Alpine caribou discomfort.